Laura Ingwell

Entomology
Area(s) of Interest: Vegetable Pest Management, Protected Agriculture, Controlled Environment Agriculture, Urban Agriculture
I work on insect pest management and pollination in horticultural crop production. I specialize in high tunnel production systems, examining biological control and conventional pest management strategies and the impacts of agricultural inputs on crop pollinators with an emphasis on managed bumble bees. I am interested in evaluating organic and conventional pest management with an emphasis on sustainable practices for food production.

34 articles by this author

Article List
Figure 1. Aphids on kale crop. Photos courtesy Liz Maynard.

Aphids can be one of the most damaging and hard to control pests during the winter months in high tunnels. The first step to managing aphids is to develop a scouting plan. Aphids reproduce clonally and develop quickly leading to very large population build-up in a short period of time. Therefore scouting is recommended at least three times a week. When examining plants be sure to look at the growing point and underside of leaves, where aphids prefer to colonize (Figure 1). Outbreaks commonly begin on the outer rows or the start of the row so these are places to be sure to include when scouting. In the summer months, successful control has been achieved using a soap/mineral oil spray consisting of 1.5% castile soap and 0.25% mineral oil. Cornell University also reports grower success using the biopesticides Mycotrol O and BotaniGard. These are commercially available formulations of the aphid-attacking[Read More…]


There is a variety of commercial suppliers to choose from when purchasing predatory insects and parasitoids for biological control. Some of them rear the insects themselves and others are distributors for some of the larger rearing facilities in Europe and Canada. There are some key things to consider when choosing a supplier. The first of which may be shipping dates and ordering deadlines. Depending on the predators being purchased, they typically ship one day a week (multiple for organisms such as predatory mites) and therefore there are strict ordering deadlines the week prior. In general biological control needs to be implemented when pests are first detected, and at low levels, through active scouting efforts. If pests are already at damaging or outbreak levels alternative interventions (insecticidal soap or chemical application) to knock back the populations may be necessary prior to releasing predators for long-term control. Either way, it is important[Read More…]


Figure 1. A ladybug feeding on aphids

Supplementing the natural enemy population to control insect pests, i.e. augmentation biological control, is of interest to many high tunnel producers. Augmentation biological control has proven very effective at managing a number of greenhouse pests and there are a variety of commercial suppliers. For high tunnels, the greatest challenge is keeping the released predators or parasitoids inside the tunnels and choosing agents that are effective under high temperatures, during the peak of the growing season. We have evaluated some of the more common control agents in high tunnel cucumber and tomato production. The convergent ladybug, Hippodamia convergens, is not grown in a growth facility but rather caught in the wild in the western U.S. (typically California) and shipped throughout the US for control of aphids in particular. They are a fairly inexpensive predator (1500 for about $15.00), the immature form (larvae) and adults feed on aphids (Figure 1). However, you[Read More…]


Figure 1. Aphids on tomatoes in a high tunnel (Photo credit Wenjing Guan)

We have begun to receive the first reports of aphid outbreaks in high tunnels on tomato, pepper, and cucumber (Figure 1). Aphids are a very common problem in high tunnels because the covering excludes rainfall, which is a major mortality factor for small insects like aphids. Some growers are interested in using biological control in their high tunnels because the ability to contain natural enemies within the tunnels increases the likelihood of achieving control. Based on our experience, we believe that lacewing larvae hold the greatest promise for successful biological control of aphids in high tunnels. Because they don’t fly, they are less likely to leave the high tunnel than many other biological control agents. There are a number of biological control suppliers who can provide lacewing larvae for growers. For growers interested in chemical control, some of the insecticides that could be expected to provide good control and are[Read More…]