24 articles tagged "Pests and Pest Management - General".

I continue to catch low numbers of corn earworm moths in my pheromone trap. Although the numbers are low, growers with very early sweet corn that is in the reproductive stage should be alert for potential damage. The threshold for spraying sweet corn that matures prior to field corn silking is only one moth per night. My cooperators at the Purdue Ag Centers around the state are putting up their earworm pheromone traps today (June 6), so by the time you receive this newsletter, we should have data available on moth catches around the state, which you can access at https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/cornearworm/index.php. As I suggested in the last edition of the Vegetable Crops Hotline, I have found corn earworm larvae feeding in the whorl of my knee high sweet corn, planted April 18.


Purdue Extension publication PPP-110 ‘Options for Dealing with a Pesticide Drift Incident’ describes causes and effects of pesticide drift. It discusses actions a vegetable farmer (or anyone) might take if they suspect that herbicide drift may have injured their crop. The first step suggested is to find out what caused the symptoms. The publication explains that Purdue Extension educators can help in determining the cause of symptoms, but are not pesticide drift investigators. The Office of the Indiana State Chemist (OISC) investigates pesticide drift complaints. What happens once a complaint is filed is outlined step-by-step. There is also a list of the kind of information it is helpful to collect as soon as a problem is noticed. To order a free, single copy of the publication, call the Education Store at 765-494-6795. It may also be downloaded as a pdf at https://ag.purdue.edu/extension/ppp/Documents/PPP-110.pdf.

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The symptoms of lettuce drop include a white mold that covers much of the plant and the dark, irregular sclerotia that are observed here. (photo: Wenjing Guan).

Cool season crops such as lettuce are becoming a more popular crop among Indiana greenhouse/high tunnel growers. One of the most important diseases of lettuce is known as lettuce drop. The symptoms of lettuce drop are often noticed after the thinning stage, early in the crop development. The early symptoms may include browning of leaves. Later on in the crop development, the outer most leaves of the lettuce plant may wilt. As the disease become more severe, inner leaves may become infected. Eventually, the entire plant may collapse. The plant often has white mold on the leaves and dark irregular fruiting bodies may be observed (Figure 1). The dark fruiting bodies are known as sclerotia. Two different organisms may be responsible for lettuce drop. Sclerotina sclerotiorum and S. minor. Lettuce drop caused by S. sclerotiorum requires a chilling period (52 to 59° F) for the sclerotia to turn into mushrooms smaller than a[Read More…]


Three species of seed and root maggots attack vegetables in Indiana. The seedcorn maggot (Figure 1) feeds on seeds and seedlings of sweetcorn, cucurbits, lima and snap beans, peas, and other crops. Cabbage maggots can cause serious damage to transplants of cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts and make the fleshy roots of radishes, turnips, and rutabagas unmarketable. Onion maggots are pests of seedling onions, developing bulbs and onions intended for storage. Seedcorn maggot flies emerge in April and May and lay eggs preferentially in areas with decaying organic matter. Fields that are heavily manured or planted to a cover crop are more likely to have seedcorn maggot injury. Maggots burrow into the seed and feed within, often destroying the germ. The seeds fail to germinate and plants do not emerge from the soil, leaving gaps in the stand. When infested seeds germinate, the seedlings are weak and may die.[Read More…]


In recent years, many seed companies have begun using the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam (FarMore) as a seed treatment on cucurbit and other vegetable seeds. Thiamethoxam is a systemic insecticide that moves from the seed coat into the seedling and then moves throughout the plant. Research has shown that these seed treatments provide about 3 weeks of excellent control of cucumber beetles, aphids and other pests. Unfortunately, the systemic nature of the insecticide also results in residues being present in the pollen that could potentially be harmful to honey bees and other pollinators. Although these seed treatments are a good pest management tool, growers should be cautious in how they use them to avoid possible harm to pollinators. Our research has shown that cucurbits that are grown in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks before being transplanted into the field, do not have enough of the insecticide left in the stem and[Read More…]


One way insects communicate with individuals of the same species is with pheromones. Pheromones are volatile chemicals released by an insect that usually can be detected only by individuals of the same species. There are a number of different types of pheromones, but the most common type is the sex pheromone. Usually the females will emit a tiny amount of a chemical that attracts the male to her and increases the likelihood of mating. Because the chemical is volatile, air currents carry it. The male detects the pheromone in the air with receptors on his antennae. He then flies upwind to find the source of the pheromone, a prospective mate. The chemical compositions of pheromones for a number of pest species have been identified and synthetic copies can be produced in the laboratory. Synthetic pheromones can be used in conjunction with traps to catch male insects. Listed below are some, but[Read More…]


New fungicide – I would like to announce the release of a new fungicide, Orondis® from Syngenta. It is a good product and should help commercial vegetable growers in combating downy mildew of cucurbits, Phytophthora blight of cucurbits, peppers and tomato, Buckeye rot of tomato and late blight of potato and tomato. However, I also want to discuss Orondis® because of the complicated way in which it is being released. Be advised that the listing for Orondis® in the MW Vegetable Production Guide for 2016 (ID-56) is incorrect. Please see the on-line version of the ID-56 for the most current information. Orondis® has a new active ingredient which does not appear in any other fungicide and a novel mode of action, FRAC code U15. But you will not be able to purchase Orondis® on its own. It will be available as 3 different multi packs or co-packs. Each multi-pack will contain two jugs, each with a[Read More…]


QR code linking to registration for August 13 event.

​Pinney Purdue Vegetable Field Day and Sweet Corn Sampler. Thursday, August 13, 2015. 4:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m. CDT. Pinney Purdue Ag Center, 11402 S. County Line Rd., Wanatah, IN. Plot tours include soil health management and disease suppressive soils, tomatoes and peppers in high tunnels, and sweet corn varieties. Private Applicator Recertification (PARP) Credit available. To register, visit http://tinyurl.com/no6tosr or contact Lori Jolly-Brown, ljollybr@purdue.edu, or 765-494-1296. Beginning Farmer Tours. Free farm tours and networking events sponsored by Purdue Extension and Local Growers Guild. For more information and to register contact the Purdue Extension Education Store at www.edustore.purdue.edu or 888-EXT-INFO. August 18: Redbud Farm, home of Caprini Creamery, Spiceland, IN. Breakfast, networking, lunch and tour. September 8: Growing Places Indy, Indianapolis, IN. Lunch, networking session, tour. Urban produce farm with raised beds, u-pick, and greenhouses. September 14: Morning Harvest, Palmyra and Hardinsburg, IN. Breakfast, networking session, lunch and tour. Developing[Read More…]


Sweet corn ready for sampling.

​Pinney Purdue Vegetable Field Day and Sweet Corn Sampler. Thursday, August 13, 2015. 4:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m. CDT. Pinney Purdue Ag Center, 11402 S. County Line Rd., Wanatah, IN. Plot tours include soil health management and disease suppressive soils, tomatoes and peppers in high tunnels, and sweet corn varieties. To register, contact Lori Jolly-Brown, ljollybr@purdue.edu, or 765-494-1296.


​I have received calls about seedcorn maggots in melons and have seen wireworm damage in my research plots in Vincennes. Seedcorn maggots are usually associated with cool weather since the adult flies will not lay their eggs near melons plants when the soil temperature exceeds 70°F. So the cool weather we have had this past week could promote seedcorn maggot problems. One of the species of wireworms I observed is Conoderus lividus, a species commonly associated with corn. If you are planting melons after corn, the field could be infested with wireworms, although frankly this is fairly rare. You can determine the potential for wireworm problems prior to planting by burying a cup of flour or untreated grain (corn or wheat) about 6 inches under the ground. Come back and dig up the bait in about a week and look for wireworms. About the only product melon growers have available[Read More…]


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