43 articles tagged "Crop Culture".

​Crop production, decomposition of organic matter, using ammonium-producing nitrogen fertilizers, and rainfall all lower soil pH. To maintain soil pH in the optimal range (6.5 to 6.8) for vegetable production, periodic application of lime is needed. The primary form of agricultural lime is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It is the carbonate (CO3^2-) part that brings up soil pH. Whenever lime is applied, a large amount of calcium is also added to the soil. The good news is that calcium is an essential plant nutrient. Several vegetable problems that we are familiar with are caused by calcium deficiency for example, blossom end rot of tomatoes and peppers, and tip burn of cabbages. However, it should be noted that excess calcium might interfere with plant available magnesium and potassium. Therefore, it is always better to keep a balance of those nutrients. Some lime products are specified as dolomitic lime. Dolomitic lime is common[Read More…]


Vegetables such as this watermelon may become sunburned if lack of foliage cover exposes the fruit to excess sun and heat. (Photo by Dan Egel)

​Loss of foliage due to poor growing conditions or disease can cause fruit to be exposed to the sun. Hot temperatures and direct sunlight can lead to areas of the fruit that appear bleached or sunburned. Sunburned fruit may not be marketable. To reduce the probability sunburned fruit, every effort should be made to maintain foliage throughout the season. Early wet weather encouraged foliar disease and recent hot, dry weather may have restricted foliar development. Orienting vegetable plantings to minimize damage from the prevailing winds and providing windbreaks such as strips of rye or wheat may help to reduce sunburn. Several products are available that are labeled for use as a preventive for sunburn. These products may be broken into two groups: kaolin (clay) based products and calcium carbonated based products. Kaolin based products include Surround®. Some Surround® products are labeled for use as sunburn protection, while others are not. For example,[Read More…]


​Growers may be wondering whether to replant pumpkin fields where the stand is uneven due to excess moisture. Potential yield of the replants is one thing it would be good to know. We have data on yield of pumpkins direct-seeded or transplanted in mid-July in northern Indiana. The trials were no-till planted into a harvested wheat field. Pumpkins were harvested in mid to late October. Yield of direct-seeded pumpkins ranged from 0 to 0.6 tons per acre for 8 varieties in 2004, and from 2.6 to 6.4 tons per acre for 5 varieties in 2005. Yield of transplanted pumpkins ranged from 2 to 8 tons per acre for 8 varieties in 2004 and from 4.4 to 9 tons per acre for 5 varieties in 2005. For comparison, typical yields at this site for an early- to mid-June planting date with conventional tillage range from 10 to 25 tons per acre.[Read More…]


Boiler Hops Logo

​Burrs and Cones. Both of the trellises in the Boiler Hopyard have begun flowering and coning. The primary shoots were pruned at the top of the net on the dwarf trellis in order to promote lateral growth. The pruning took place on May 19 and again on May 28. The bines on the dwarf trellis have been flourishing with flowers and now cones. Out of the six cultivars in the hopyard, Galena was the first to reach the top of the dwarf trellis and begin flowering. The tall trellis began flowering in early June along with the dwarf trellis, but after adding the last dose of nitrogen the plants in the tall trellis began putting on more vegetative growth, including lateral branches. This appeared to delay flowering and allowed for more lateral growth development. The plants in the tall trellis are now in full bloom and appear to be several[Read More…]


Sweet corn ready for sampling.

​Pinney Purdue Vegetable Field Day and Sweet Corn Sampler. Thursday, August 13, 2015. 4:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m. CDT. Pinney Purdue Ag Center, 11402 S. County Line Rd., Wanatah, IN. Plot tours include soil health management and disease suppressive soils, tomatoes and peppers in high tunnels, and sweet corn varieties. To register, contact Lori Jolly-Brown, ljollybr@purdue.edu, or 765-494-1296.


​High rainfall amounts lead to loss of nitrogen from the soil. Sometimes the loss is great enough that a crop will benefit from additional nitrogen application. This article will describe how nitrogen is lost and factors to consider in deciding whether to apply extra nitrogen. There are two main ways nitrogen is lost from wet soils. Nitrogen is lost to the air by denitrification. Denitrification occurs in saturated soils when there is little oxygen in the soil. In the denitrification process, nitrate is broken down by bacteria to form oxygen and volatile nitrogen compounds including nitrous oxide and nitrogen gas. These volatile compounds move into the air and nitrogen is lost from the soil. Denitrification is common on heavier soils. In Indiana, saturated soils lose 4% to 5% of their nitrate nitrogen for each day they are saturated. Nitrogen is lost below the root zone of the crop by leaching.[Read More…]


Seven day observed precipitation (in.) ending June 23

​Much of the state has seen excessive rains in recent weeks (Fig. 1). When soils are saturated vegetable crops suffer. This article, slightly revised from its original publication date in July 2003, describes and explains problems that are likely to occur.   Vegetable crops become stressed in waterlogged soils. Aboveground wilting, yellowing and death of leaves, and epinasty, or downward curling of leaves and stems are all responses to what is happening to roots. If we had a window into the soil we would see roots stop growing and root tips die due to lack of oxygen. Wilting occurs because roots in waterlogged soil do not conduct water as well and lack of new root growth limits water uptake, while the aboveground portion of the plant may continue to grow for a time even after the root has stopped. The root system just cannot supply water fast enough to prevent wilting.[Read More…]


Shoots infected with downy mildew.

​Purdue University’s Boiler Hop Yard has started its second growing season with the hopes of providing Indiana growers with science-based recommendations for hop production in the Midwest. With summer rapidly approaching, hop bines are now climbing over 10 feet high in portions of Indiana, and the Boiler Hop Yard is no exception. Downy Mildew. One of the biggest threats to Indiana hop production is downy mildew. Downy mildew (Pseudopernospora humuli) can cause hop quality to depreciate, yield to be stunted, and sometimes even plant death. Downy mildew was identified in the Boiler Hop Yard in mid-April this year, and is present in other Indiana hop farms as well. Downy mildew overwinters in the crown of the hop plant, and appears in the early spring on newly emerged primary basal or aerial spikes as a sidearm (Figure 1). These spikes have irregular growth patterns and are undesirable in hop production. The[Read More…]


​​A field day will be held on July 9 to share with the public the various research activities at the Southwest Purdue Agricultural Center in Vincennes, IN. The day will start at 7:30 A.M. with a health fair. Registration starts at 8:30 A.M. Presentation topics include: managing cucumber beetles while protecting bees, production of vegetables in high tunnels, canola production, hybrid cottonwood as a bioenergy crop, grape production, field crops disease update, soybean production, maximizing seed corn investment and benefits of starter fertilizer. Lunch is free with registration. A PARP class will be offered after lunch. Please contact Barb Joyner at 812-886-0198 or joynerb@purdue.edu to RSVP or go on-line at http:///tinyurl.com/2015SWPAC.


​Blossom end rot of tomato has been showing up in some protected growing structures. This article reviews the disorder and summarizes preventive practices. Blossom end rot is a physiological disorder caused by a deficient supply of calcium to the developing fruit. It is a common problem on tomatoes, but can also occur on peppers, eggplants, and melons. Blossom end rot appears first as a small darkened or water soaked area, usually at the blossom end of the fruit. This spot darkens, enlarges and dries out as fruit matures. The area may be invaded by secondary decay causing organisms. Prevention is the best way to avoid losses from blossom end rot. Prevention strategies emphasize ensuring adequate supply and availability of calcium, and managing plant growth environmental conditions to promote movement of calcium to the developing fruit. If I could offer just one suggestion it would be to maintain a consistent water[Read More…]


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